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Fabric Types Part 1

CONTENTS

A fashion designer needs to know the fabric types and their structure. But this is only achieved when we know the original ingredient used to create a fabric. And this is nothing more than the fiber that creates the thread.

The 2 categories that separate the fibers in the types of fabrics.

The fiber is mainly characterized by its thickness and length. It depends on its ability to twist with other fibers to create the thread. They are divided into two categories, the natural and the artificial. Natural fibers are relatively small compared to chemically generated artificial fibers. With the exception of silk which can reach a length of 2000 meters.

Natural fibers

The natural fibers are divided into two groups and then these two into subgroups. They are vegetable and vital. Usually these fibers are mixed but there are also fabrics that are created entirely by some. Such as silk, wool, cotton and flax.

The main fiber is:

Cotton: The main properties of cotton are its durability and absorbency. There are many fabric types made from cotton. We have light tulle-like tulle, silk-like poplin, fine embroidered fabrics and ribbons, soft jerseys, heavy stripes and canvases, corduroy, velvet, lining, etc.

Flax: Linen is considered to be the first fiber used by man. In the fashion industry the thinking about the material changes over the years. At first it was considered boring, classic, but then it became an expensive element of fashion. It is now considered an ecological material, but of course with special processing. It is mixed with other fibers in order to improve its appearance. The types of fabrics produced from flax are constantly increasing. Light fabrics and thin with decorations, classic linens in various weights, fashion fabrics in a wide variety of weaving, knitwear and tweed (Scottish).

Smaller fiber is:

Cannabis: Hemp fibers and flax fibers are identical and look like two drops of water. The differences between the two fabrics are minimal. The length of the hemp fiber is a little longer and its color is yellowish, gray with dark brown while the linen is yellowish to gray. Hemp is also more resistant to ultraviolet radiation so it does not fade. Both fabrics are biodegradable.

Ramie: The Chinese nettle. One of the oldest raw materials used for the production of textiles. A high quality yarn used to produce top quality outerwear. The fabric is light and silky. Many kimonos were made from it.

Jute: The burlap is made. Fabric for many applications. Decorative items, bonbons, high-strength bags, hats, bags, etc.

Vital fibers are:

Wool: 90% of the animal fibers produced are wool. The hairs that are smaller and thinner than wool (eg cashmere, bacon, alpaca, mohair) are usually mixed with other fibers for high quality fabrics. The fiber is cylindrical with a scaly surface, with an internal fibrous and complex structure. Wool has unique natural properties. It is warm, elastic, it applies to the body but it also has its negatives. It does not absorb sweat, it shrinks very easily. That is why there is a lot of elaboration. There are many types of wool fabrics. Georgettes, ribbons, fine soft woolen fabrics, soft jerseys, heavy knits, jacquards, hard fabrics for suits and trench coats. Heavy wool with endless properties. Combed with fluff with an interesting surface structure.

Silk: Silk comes out of the silkworm cocoon. This caterpillar knits the cocoon around it to turn it into a chrysalis. China is the country with the largest production of raw silk. Its quality varies and production is not stable. Silk is increasingly used in blending with man-made fibers. The types of fabrics produced from silk have expanded beyond the luxury and classic markets. Decorative fabrics, light fabrics for dresses and shirts, crepes, embroidery, soft jerseys with special knits, Scottish and fluffy fabrics.

Vital smaller fibers is the hair that comes from animals such as camel, alpaca, llama, mohair, cashmere, κασγόρα , anchor (kid, rabbit ), horse.

Artificial fibers:

man-made fibers can also be divided into two groups. In natural polymers and in synthetic polymers. Natural polymers are made in chemical form from natural raw materials and synthetics are made from chemical synthesis of chemical raw materials.

The natural polymers are:

VISCOSE (Viscose): The oldest man-made fiber. It produces fabrics with great properties in their application to the body, in their volume and has resistance to wrinkling. There are many types of viscose fabrics and this is because it can be produced with various properties. In the past it was used mainly for cheap dresses and underwear. It was a substitute for cotton and silk. Today it is used in fabrics of all qualities and prices and in various percentages in weaves, knits, blends, impurities.

ΚΟΥΠΡΟ (CUPRO ): Fabrics made from dill have a silky appearance and fit well on the body.

MODAL: Modal fiber fabrics have some resemblance to cotton.

Acetate, diacetate, cellulose triacetate: Cellulose acetate fabrics are very common in woven and knitted fabrics. Their low absorbency makes these fabrics suitable for swimwear and waterproof clothes. Their application on the body and their shine makes these fabrics suitable for luxury clothes (eg crepe, velvet and satin). The variety of shapes allows the creation of hard and embossed fabrics (eg taffeta and brocade, ie gold woven).

Lyocell: It has great durability, while in its processing it is soft and glossy with good properties and a great application. It consists of 100% cellulose that comes from wood pulp and its production is done in an ecological way. Fabrics include crepes, dimits, poplin, jeans, chambrays and many knits.

The synthetic polymers are:

Polyamide (nylon): Nylon is found mainly in socks, underwear and raincoats, but its unique mechanical strength makes it a basic product for the manufacture of various types of fabrics. Durable fabrics for waterproof clothes, light and bulky fabrics extremely comfortable and suitable for sportswear, a wide variety of knits, fabrics with silk or peach skin, luxury satin, crepe and taffeta, artificial furs.

Polyester: Microfiber polyester fabrics are made from very thin yarns that make them uniquely light to the touch or velvet down fabrics for comfort and functionality. Polyester membranes (sympatex) can stick to any fabric and make it waterproof, while allowing perspiration. The hollow fibers (thermostat) give warm fabrics, which allow perspiration. Polyester fabrics are found in many forms. Thin laces, ribbons, thin durable fabrics that protect us from the weather. Suitable for sports activities (overalls), knitwear of great variety, luxury satin, crepe and taffeta, fabrics for suits and artificial furs.

Acrylics: Acrylics are made from by-products of gas and air. Acrylic fibers have unique properties for curling the thread and are used in the production of bulky threads. They have low absorbency and dry very easily. They have insulating properties, unique durability and ease of maintenance. The fibers are sensitive to heat and can be easily damaged. Fabrics made of acrylic fibers are thick and lightweight, comfortable and warm, knitted with various weights and textures, fluffy and shaggy.

Elastin (lycra): Elastin is one of the fibers that strengthens fabrics. The main element for choosing to use it is the final use of the fabric. The raw material of elastin is polyurethane. Its molecular structure allows it to lengthen and contract relative to its original position.

Other secondary synthetic fibers are polyvinyl, polyurethane, aramid, polyolefins, polyethylan, polypropylene, chlorofibre (PVC fibers), PVC (PVC leaf).

Names of the main types of fabrics:

Light Moderate to light Moderate Moderate to heavy Heavy
Batiste Afgalaine Alpaca fabrics Bedford cord Astrakhan
English broderie Angora fabrics Brocade Boucle broadcloth Beaver cloth
Burnt or fabrics English broderie Butcher Buckram Double knit
Cheese clothe Burnt or fabrics Canarly twill Burlap Felt
Chiffon Cashmere Covert Camel hair fabrics Flock fabric
Embroideries Chinese crepe Damascus Denim Candlewick Fur fabric
Fur Crepe back satin Donegal tweed Canvas Harris tweed
Gause Crepon Duchesse Satin Chenille Leather cloth
Interfacing Crinoline Faconne Velvet Corduroy Loden cloth
lace Dupion Flannelete Double cloth Melton
leather Foulard Grenadine Grosgrain Double – pique Plush
mesh Gingham Haircord Drill Quilted fabrics
muslin Honan Irish tweed Duck Suede cloth
Organza Jersey single Jean Dungaree Terry clothe
Paper taffeta Lace Knop Flannel Velneteen
Tulle Leather Lama fabrics Fleece Garbage
Morocco PVC Fustian
Micro fiber Sailcloth Gabardine
Milanese Mohair fabrics Tartan Intarsia
Moore mousseline Weft Knits Jersey double
Peau de soi Worsted Moleskin
Satin Polar
Seersucker Jean
Shantung Sharkskin
The fabrics Tricot Tapestry
Ticking
Tweed
Venetian Vicuna fabrics
Whipcord
Source of information Winifred Aldrich Book

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πόσο

10/05/2024

Πόσο χαίρομαι που σας βρήκα τυχαία στο ίντερνετ , αγγελία είδα που έχετε και μπήκα τυχαία! Τέλειο site!

Avatar for ρεγγίνα
ρεγγίνα

υπερβολικα

10/05/2024

Υπερβολικά χρήσιμο και σπάνιο κείμενο, δεν έχω βρει παρόμοιο στο ίντερνετ ξανά!

Avatar for φλώρα
φλώρα

πολυ ενδιαφεροντα

10/11/2023

πολυ ενδιαφεροντα ολα αυτα, ευχαριστουμε. πρεπει κανεις βεβαια αν δεν ειναι ειδικος και ειναι απλως καταναλωτης να γνωριζει πως να συμπεριφερθει στα πολυ ευαισθητα υφασματα διοτι ειναι ευκολο να τα φθειρεις με ενα μονο πλυσιμο. Θα ηταν ενδιαφερον ενα τετοιο αρθρο ισως

Avatar for μαριλου
μαριλου

say cheese

05/08/2023

χαχαχα cheese clothe δε το ειχα ξαναδει

μπραβο σας παντως, καθε αρθρο ειναι τεκμηριωμενο

Avatar for Γιωργια Μ.
Γιωργια Μ.

expensive or not

25/07/2023

there are many qualities for each fiber , it depends where u buy it from and not only the cost of it. i mean i bought a silk scarf from india last year and the touch is heaven . on the other hand i ve seen lots of silk fabrics i d never buy and they sell it too expensive

Avatar for helena br.
helena br.

Response from Sxedio Modas

Yes, we should be very attentive about our suppliers or sellers, if we don’t have the knowledge to decide on our own. Thank you for the review!

ωραια

25/02/2023

ωραια ολα αυτα, αλλα πως τα σιδερωνεις το καθενα αν δε ξερεις??? εχω διαβασει πχ οτι τα λινα πρεπει να ειναι λιγο νωπα για να στρωσουν ομορφα, ισχυει?

Avatar for δαναη μπ
δαναη μπ

Response from Sxedio Modas

Ναι, και επιθυμητό είναι να υπάρχει πετσέτα βαμβακερή ανάμεσα στο σίδερο και το ευαίσθητο ύφασμα!

easy

07/06/2022

its really easy to find whatever fabric you want on internet! you can ”experiment”

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fashion icon

only natural

04/12/2021

i prefer only natural (also bio) fibers, its better for skin and enviroment!

Avatar for samanthas fashion
samanthas fashion

Response from Sxedio Modas

We totally agree with you! Thank you for your review!

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